Socio-economic Background And The Relative Efficacy Of Self Drills On Factual Recall And Students’ Achievement In English Language In Senior Secondary Schools In Nigeria
Academic Leadership - Online Journal,
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2007): Vol-8-Issue-1-January-2007
Factual recall is an aspect of memory which deals with the lower order cognitive functioning comprising
of knowledge and comprehension. It is the aspect of memory which serves as the foundation for the
higher order cognitive functioning which includes application, synthesis and evaluation of knowledge.
Definitely, good factual recall ability is needed to enable man acquire knowledge and comprehension
which form the basis for ability to apply, evaluate and synthesize knowledge at the higher levels of
learning. Interestingly, factual recall skill is not present equally in all human beings. Some people have
the capacity to keep things for long in their memory, while some forget every bit of information within a
twinkle of an eye (Green, 2005).
Differences in human memory of things are thought to be due to various factors such as differential
physiological make – up (Calvin & Ojemann, 1994); dieting, nature and nurture as well as health
conditions (Rowlands, 1999). Memory is of particular interest to educational psychologists especially
as it relates to learners’ ability to perceive, encode, decode and retrieve information received as
learning contents. Mueller and Shiffrin (2006) stated that when information is encoded by the cognitive
system, episodic traces are formed by combining bottom – up perceptual information and
environmental context with our long term knowledge of the world. Yet, this long term knowledge is
formed through the continual accrual of the very experiences it helps to form. Thus, a better
understanding of the memory processes is often sought to facilitate learning process.