Differential Effectiveness of Provocation, Brainstorming and Emotional Mastery in Fostering Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Among Nigerian Adolescents
Academic Leadership - Online Journal,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2007): Vol-8-Issue-3-March-2007
While intelligent Quotient (IQ) has long been used as a predictor of student success, as the world
enters the 21st century, research shows that Emotional intelligence (EI) is a better predictor of success
than the more traditional measures of cognitive intelligence (Goleman, 1995). Emotional intelligence is
defined as the ability to perceive emotions, to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional
knowledge, to reflectively regulate emotions, to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer &
Salovery 1997). McQueen (2004) suggests that EI is highly predictive of an individual’s general
domains such as career performance.
Self-esteem (SE) can be defined as one’s more or less sustained sense of liking oneself (Gay, 2001).
Self-esteem (SE) refers to general feelings of self-worth or self-value that is, it is the value placed on
oneself. It is the way an individual feels about him/her self and how he or she relates to other people.
SE is pride in oneself by which one is aware and accepts one’s inherent strengths and positive
qualities. In other words it is the judgment that people make of themselves. It could be high or low.
When a person can accept his/her weaknesses and faults and simultaneously recognizes his/her
strengths and positive qualities, the person will experience strong self-worth and high self-esteem.
Merki (1996) stated the characteristics of people with good self-esteem to include; goal oriented
motivation by their achievement now and in future, confident in self, not liking to compare self with
others and consciousness of self.