No Child Left Behind: School Processes Associated with Positive Changes, Collaborative Partnership, and Principal Leadership
Academic Leadership - Online Journal,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2007): Vol-8-Issue-3-March-2007
On January 8, 2002, the President of the United States of America, George W. Bush, signed into law
the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001, reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education
Act EDEA) of 1965. NCLB is intended to impact student achievement through a wide range of
mechanisms. Current educational discourse focuses on the pros and cons of testing standards and
requirements, and policies around school choice. It also emphasizes the importance of family and
community involvement in students’ education.
Title I, begun with the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, provides
federal funding for schools to help students who are behind academically or at risk of falling behind.
Services can include: hiring teachers to reduce class size, tutoring, computer labs, parental
involvement activities, professional development, purchase of materials and supplies, pre-kindergarten
programs, and hiring teacher assistants or others. Title I is the largest federal education program,
which is intended to help ensure that all children have the opportunity to obtain a high quality education
and reach proficiency on challenging state academic standards and assessments.
Many of the major requirements in NCLB are outlined in Title I – Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP),
teacher and paraprofessional requirements, accountability, sanctions for schools designated for
improvement, standards and assessments, annual state report cards, professional development, and
parent involvement. According to section 1118 of Title I, schools receiving this type of funding are
required to implement activities that help foster greater family and community involvement. Among
these requirements, schools are required to provide information to parents helping them understand
academic content and achievement standards, to educate educators in how to reach out to parents
and implement programs connecting children’s home and school, and to communicate in languages
and at reading levels accessible to all families. In addition, NCLB states that schools may also develop
partnerships with community-based organizations and businesses.